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Cloud service delivery is divided among three archetypal models and various derivative combinations. The three fundamental classifications are often referred to as the “SPI Model,” where ‘SPI’ refers to Software, Platform or Infrastructure (as a Service), respectively — defined thus:
- Cloud Software as a Service (SaaS). The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. The applications are accessible from various client devices through a thin client interface such as a web browser (e.g., web-based email). The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, storage, or even individual application capabilities, with the possible exception of limited user specific application configuration settings.
- Cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS). The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages and tools supported by the provider. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but has control over the deployed applications and possibly application hosting environment configurations.
- Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems, storage, deployed applications, and possibly limited control of select networking components (e.g., host firewalls).
Cloud Deployment Models
Regardless of the service model utilized (SaaS, PaaS, or IaaS) there are three deployment models for cloud services, with derivative variations that address specific requirements:
- Public Cloud. The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services.
- Private Cloud. The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for a single organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party, and may exist on-premises or offpremises.
- Hybrid Cloud. The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load-balancing between clouds).